History of Peshawar Khyber Pakhunkhwa

Peshawar and its history covers thousands of years. The Indian epic Ramayana describes that the city of Pushklawati, founded by Bharata’s son Pushkal, existed in the region somewhere in-between the present day Peshawar and Charsada. Indo-Iranian invaders renamed it as Purushapura. The famous Chinese Monk Huang Seng describes it in his writings as Po Lu Sha. The city changed its name after each invasion it faced. It saw the first period of glory during the Kingdom of Gandhara. Archaeologists have established that the Kingdom of Gandhara existed almost 3000 years ago when Aryan populations from central Asia came and established their settlements here. The hymns mentioned in the sacred book of Hinduism were first sung by the Aryans.

Peshawar was first conquered by the Persian dynasty of Achaemenids in 558 B.C. Darius took control of this region in 520 B.C. Alexander the Great of Macedonia came here in 326 B.C. Then Mauryans controlled it for quite some time. Then comes the period of instability and political turmoil that lasted over 350 years. Kushan invaders from Afghanistan conquered the region in 64 A.D. and that’s when it started flourishing again. King Kanishka of Kushan dynasty is considered to be the one who contributed in a big way in the development of the Kingdom of Gandhara that included the present day Peshawar.

All these invasions and socio cultural changes over the centuries impacted and influenced in a big way on local artists and it gave birth to a new art called Gandhara Art, a jolly melange of East and West. A visit to the Peshawar museum is highly recommended as most of the sculptures, statues, jatakas and mini Stupas there are from this period. Greek and Hindu influence is clearly visible …

Hindus controlled it from 9th century to the 11th century. Afghan ruler Mahmood of Ghazni conquered it again and then came the period of Moghal dynasty who ruled in the then sub-continent. They were great builders and left their names in history for having built Taj Mahal in Agra, Red Fort and Jama Masjid in Delhi, Red Fort in Agra, Badshahi Mosque and the Red Fort in Lahore. The whole region was under the British domination for almost 100 years. During their occupation, Peshawar as well as the Pakhtoon tribal areas was the only zone that did not fell under their domination. British tried their best to control this area as well and several battles were fought against local Pathan tribes but in vain. They left the region in 1947 when the Indian subcontinent was divided into two sovereign states: India and Pakistan.

Peshawar features a hot semi-arid climate with long and extremely hot summers, dry and relatively mild winters. The weather of the city is extreme during the months of May, June and July, when the temperatures soar to 40-41 °C. From late July till mid of August, the monsoon seasons starts, with heavy rainfall throughout the province. For your information, here below are the average temperatures per month in Peshawar: JAN 18 FEB 20 MAR 24 APR 29 MAY 33 JUN 37 JUL 38 AUG 35 SEP 32 OCT 29 NOV 25 DEC 2

News Flash & Highlights

  • Pre Orthocon Workshop-schedule
  • Theme: The Challenge of Change- The emergence of sub-specialities
  • 16-19th November, 2017 Pearl Continental Hotel Peshawar


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